The ancient man lived in the midst of wild animals. He satisfied his hunger by killing them and eating their flesh. As he grew civilised, he gave up his cruelty to animals and birds. He developed his food on land and sought the help of animals in his work. He no more killed them for his food. In the course of time, hunting animals and birds were given up. It became only the occasional pastime of kings and nobles. So animals and birds lived moved freely in the forests. The man enjoyed them in their natural surroundings.
But with the progress of civilisation, man destroyed forests, the natural home of wildlife, more and more to prepare land for agriculture and habitation, set up factories, lay railway lines and roads and dig mines. This lessened the number of animals and birds and even caused an imbalance in our environment.
The Wildlife is a Part of our Natural Resources:
The animals and birds are a part of our nation's natural resources. The skins, bones, horns, tusks, teeth, wool of livestock and the feathers of birds are used to prepare luxurious things, household articles and even useful medicines. These things help us earn a lot of foreign coins. The tusks of male elephants are used for preparing household luxury furniture. Pills are made from animal fat. The animal skins are tanned to prepare warm clothes, shoes, etc.The animal products, on the whole, help the cottage and small-scale industries to prosper. So the animals are an asset to the nation because they have a significant contribution to its economic development.
The Steps by the Government to Conserve it:
The wildlife is a part of the State List as per our Constitution. So the State Government have got the sole responsibility to take care of their respective forests. The Forest Department of each state looks after their wildlife. There is a Wildlife Board in each state to advise the State Government. The Indian Wildlife Board has been found to guide them in this regard. To create awareness of the wildlife, the Wildlife week is observed every year. It is also flashed in the papers and on the TV. Hunting has been declared illegal, and people are punished for it.
The reserve Forest of the country:
There are many reserved forests and sanctuaries for animals and birds. They are meant for wildlife conservation. We have about 103 national parks and more than 247 reserved forests. They are Dudhwa and Corbett National Park in Uttar, Pradesh, Hazaribagh National Park in Biar, Bandipur in Karnataka, Dachigam in Kashmir, Jaldapara in West Bengal, Kaziranga and Manas in Assam, Periyar in Kerala, Mudumalai in Tamil Nadu and Chandaka and Similar in Orissa. These national parks are reserved for animal life in the country.
Defects in Conservation:
We have laws to protect our wild, But they are not enough. The public should extend every cooperation in this regard. The forest departments in the country also share the greater responsibility of conserving our animals and birds. It is a pity to notice that a lot of traders in collaboration with the men in the forest department kill elephants for the sake of ivory. As these people have a hand in the country's politics, the laws can't check them. So the police and the men in the forest department should discharge their duties sincerely and honestly so that the culprits will not get a chance to have their unrestricted hunting.
We should be kind to the wildlife. Conserving them is the responsibility of the nation. The Government and the public should be quite aware of it. Many birds and animals are extinct because of man's cruelty. Moreover, forests, the home of wildlife are being destroyed because of our carelessness and selfishness. This causes an imbalance in our environment. So the Government should take adequate steps to conserve our forests and thus save our wildlife and our environment as well.